2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
3Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
4Department of Respiratory Care, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
5Section of Respiratory Care, Department of Integrated Diagno-Therapeutics, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
6Crawley Vision Research Center/Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America
7The First Cardiovascular Division, Department of Internal Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
University Hospital Freiburg, Germany
Diaphragmatic dysfunction found in the patients with acute lung injury required prolonged mechanical ventilation. Mechanical ventilation can induce production of inflammatory cytokines and excess deposition of extracellular matrix proteins via up-regulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1. Lumican is known to participate in TGF-β1 signaling during wound healing. The mechanisms regulating interactions between mechanical ventilation and diaphragmatic injury are unclear. We hypothesized that diaphragmatic damage by short duration of mechanical stretch caused up-regulation of lumican that modulated TGF-β1 signaling.
Male C57BL/6 mice, either wild-type or lumican-null, aged 3 months, weighing between 25 and 30 g, were exposed to normal tidal volume (10 ml/kg) or high tidal volume (30 ml/kg) mechanical ventilation with room air for 2 to 8 hours. Nonventilated mice served as control groups.
High tidal volume mechanical ventilation induced interfibrillar disassembly of diaphragmatic collagen fiber, lumican activation, type I and III procollagen, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNA, production of free radical and TGF-β1 protein, and positive staining of lumican in diaphragmatic fiber. Mechanical ventilation of lumican deficient mice attenuated diaphragmatic injury, type I and III procollagen, fibronectin, and α-SMA mRNA, and production of free radical and TGF-β1 protein. No significant diaphragmatic injury was found in mice subjected to normal tidal volume mechanical ventilation.
Our data showed that high tidal volume mechanical ventilation induced TGF-β1 production, TGF-β1-inducible genes, e.g., collagen, and diaphragmatic dysfunction through activation of the lumican.